Wednesday, 2 January 2013

Information System (IS)

What does IS mean? IS is a application of computer based Information Technology used to facilitate planning, control, coordination and decision making in an organization.

There are three main functions of IS:
  • support competitive advantage
  • support business decision making
  • support business operations and processes
Components of CBIS (computer-based information system) are next:

  • Hardware. Consists of  computer  equipment used to perform input, processing and output activities.
  • Software. Consist of computer programs that govern the operation of the computer.
  • Databases is an organized collection of interrelated data (records)
  • People who manage, run, program, maintain
  • Procedures. Strategies, policies, methods and rules for using computer information system including operation, security and maintenance of the computer. 
  • Telecommunications. Electronic transmission of signals for communications which enables organizations to carry out their processes and task through effective computer networks.
Types of IS:

  1. Transaction Processing System (TPS)

  • records the data from everyday operations throughout every division or department in the organization
  • captures and processes data
  • supports unstructured (complex) problems
  • used by law level managers (operational)
     2.  Management Information System (MIS)

  • is an integrated collection of people, procedures, databases and devices that provides managers and decision makers with information to help achieve organizational goals
  • produces several kinds of reports with fixed and standart formats 
  • supports structured (programmed) problems
  • used by middle managerial levels (tactical)
     3.  Decision - Support System (DSS)

  • an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases and devices used to support problem - specific decision making
  • input include internal and external
  • used to support unstructured problems
  • consist of 4 part (User, Software, Data, Decision Model)
  • mainly for tactical managers
      4. Executiive Support System (ESS)
  • designed to support higher level of DM in Organization
  • gain direct access information about company
  • used by top managers (strategic)
  • use internal and external data sources
     5. Expert System (ES)
  • computerized expert systems have been developed to diagnosed problems and solve problems
  • part of a general category of computer applications known as artificial intelligence

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